Characteristics and applications of various cushioning packaging
Buffer packaging is an indispensable part of the transportation of various fragile and fragile items such as electronic products, household appliances, instruments, glass and ceramics, and plays a vital role in product transportation safety. At present, the commonly used cushioning packaging materials mainly include foamed plastics and cardboard. With the rise of green packaging and the implementation of the "plastic restriction order," foamed plastics have disadvantages such as the inability to decompose naturally and are toxic when burned, which has become a massive obstacle to the realization of green packaging. Although cardboard is more advantageous than the post-processing of foamed plastics, it consumes many resources in the early stage. It also has a certain degree of pollution during the production process. And it needs to be folded many times when used as a buffer structure, which will undoubtedly cause workforce. The waste of resources is not conducive to the advancement of intelligent manufacturing in the packaging industry.
In this case, as a new type of packaging system filled with natural air, Air Column Bag has been valued by industry professionals. Now it has become one of the most environmentally-friendly cushioning packaging materials and shows excellent development potential.
Air Column Bag has more prominent advantages, mainly in the following aspects compared with cushioning materials such as foam and honeycomb cardboard.
(1) Simple structure
For lighter products, you only need to reasonably select the size of the cushion air column bag according to the product's external dimensions, fill it with gas, wrap it around the product, and put it in a carton for transportation and sales.
(2) Wide application range
Air Column Bag has good resilience, temperature and humidity stability, moisture absorption, shock resistance and can be widely used in the transportation process of electronics, food, cultural relics, instruments, and other products.
(3) Excellent economic benefits
The excellent cushioning of Air Column Bag effectively avoids damage to products (especially precision instruments, fragile products, and military products) during storage and transportation, reducing economic losses, and the raw materials of Air Column Bag are cheap and processing equipment Simple, not only reduces packaging costs but also increases product profits.
(4) Good environmental benefits
Compared with foam plastics, Air Column Bag uses more minor. The film of discarded Air Column Bag can be recycled and reused, reducing environmental pollution and having good ecological benefits.
2. Application function
Air Column Bag first appeared in France and is mainly used in red wine packaging (as shown in Figure 1) to avoid collision damage during transportation.
Nowadays, the application field of Air Column Bag has been pervasive. Almost all products that need buffer protection during transportation can be used. In summary, there are mainly the following application functions.
⑴. Buffer and shockproof function
The rigidity of the Air Column Bag will increase as the number of compression increases, so its load-bearing capacity range is more extensive, and it has good cushioning performance. Air Column Bag can be used for products that are easily damaged in the circulation process, such as displays, mobile phones, cameras, air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines and other electronic products, tea sets, glass bottles, porcelain, and other ceramic and glass products, printers, scanners, clocks, Precision instruments such as auto parts.
(2). Protection function
The protective function of the Air Column Bag is mainly embodied in the aspects of moisture resistance, surface friction, and scratch resistance. For electronic products and precision instruments, moisture-proof during storage and transportation is also one of the basic requirements. Air Column Bag packaging is used to provide good cushioning for these products while also effectively preventing moisture. As for wooden furniture and other products that are prone to paint peeling due to bumps and frictions during transportation, an Air Column Bag can effectively prevent the development from moving in the package and protect the product from bumps and friction. Play a perfect protective effect on the surface of the product.
(3). Simple and fast operation
The Air Column Bag is about the thickness of a few sheets of paper before inflating, and the roll material placement will not take up too much storage space. When in use, it can be used directly by charging air through the inflation port (as shown in Figure 2). The operation is simple, fast, and light in weight, which can significantly reduce the burden on packaging personnel and couriers.
It is precisely because the Air Column Bag has shown good application prospects in the packaging field; it has attracted the research enthusiasm of the majority of scientific researchers and has achieved remarkable results.
Abroad, the Structural Mechanics Laboratory of the University of Texas in the United States studied the performance of cylindrical air column bags as early as 1959 and simulated the impact process through drop tests to find out the difference between airbags and foamed plastics. A better cushioning material was developed, and on this basis, other shapes of airbags were studied. Afterward, they verified the effects of temperature and humidity on the static and dynamic performance of the air column bag through vibration tests and repeated drop tests.
In China, some researchers have verified the maximum impact load of the Air Column Bag, the most suitable amount of inflation, and the shape and size of the air column bag when it satisfies the best cushioning function through a series of experiments. Among them, there are many research results that are of great guiding significance. For example, when studying the cushioning performance of Air Column Bags of different widths under different drop heights, people found that as the drop height increases, the maximum impact acceleration of Air Column Bags of the same width size will also increase, and the maximum static stress it can carry will decrease. Under the same drop height condition, as the width of the air column increases, the ultimate impact acceleration will fall, and the maximum static stress it can bear will gradually increase. In addition, there are also some breakthroughs in the research and development of new materials. The Air Column Bag made of high-strength kraft paper and water-soluble PVA film composite materials is subjected to static compression tests, dynamic compression tests, and packaged goods tests on the finished products. The test results show this Both cushioning materials can meet the cushioning requirements during transportation.
Although the performance research on Air Column Bag has been very in-depth, there are still some problems to be solved from the scientific perspective of its packaging design and the perspective of engineering application.
1. Most of the research on the performance of Air Column Bag is based on experimental methods, and lack of qualitative analysis of the impact of inflation pressure, air chamber diameter, and air chamber length on the cushioning performance, it isn't easy to really guide the design and application of cushioning. Even if some mathematical models are proposed, they are pretty complicated. For engineering application personnel, the formulas are too complex to achieve practical guidance.
At present, the inflation pressure of the Air Column Bag is still filled at will, which is roughly determined based on experience. This can meet the basic requirements of ordinary products, but for products such as high-precision and expensive electronic instruments, this rough filling method is challenging to provide the best cushioning effect. When the inflation pressure is too high, the Air Column Bag is easily squeezed. If blasting occurs, it will cause specific impact damage to the product. It can be seen that the inflation pressure has a very significant impact on the cushioning performance. To make the Air Column Bag provide the best cushioning effect on the contents, it is necessary to reasonably determine the inflation pressure based on the brittle value of the Air Column Bag material and other characteristics through more rigorous calculations. But up to now, in the packaging industry, there has not been a unified method and specific steps for the particular design of the Air Column Bag that can be referred to by the industry.
2. Insufficient research on the seismic performance of air column bags
Judging from the current research, people's research on the vibration characteristics of the Air Column Bag is obviously insufficient. During the transportation of the product, as the contents of the Air Column Bag are compressed, the rigidity of the Air Column Bag becomes time-varying, that is, under different loads. At the same time, the Air Column Bag has additional rigidity, which will affect the natural frequency of the packaging system to a certain extent. Air Column Bag has more complicated influence factors on the vibration transmission performance, and the current research on this characteristic needs to be further in-depth.
3. Air Column Bag cushioning performance is yet to be studied
Under the action of drop shock and vibration, the gas in the Air Column Bag will flow at high speed. In this case, the results of analyzing the energy absorption performance and cushioning performance of the gas cushion package through the static compression process will be conservative. The buffer mechanism has not been fully revealed. Therefore, the dynamic mechanical properties of the enclosed air in the Air Column Bag under high-speed impact and vibration should also be studied to obtain its emotional stress and strain during the impact process and to establish a structural model of the Air Column Bag to improve its cushioning. The accuracy of performance. In this regard, aerodynamic theory can be used to study the cushioning performance of the air column bag systematically, reveal the mathematical relationship between cushioning performance and air column bag parameters, and explore the specific scheme of using gas for cushion protection so that the design of the Air Column Bag can be improved. The application is more scientific, and its function is maximized.